Facial plast Surg 2003; 19(1): 107-112
DOI: 10.1055/s-2003-39135
Copyright © 2002 by Thieme Medical Publishers, Inc., 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA. Tel.: +1(212) 584-4662

A Systematic Comprehensive Approach to Management of Irreversible Facial Paralysis

Raymond S. Douglas, Roberta E. Gausas
  • University of Pennsylvania, Department of Ophthalmology, Scheie Eye Institute
Further Information

Publication History

Publication Date:
09 May 2003 (online)


Irreversible facial palsy (IFP) presents a multitude of problems arising from a paretic periorbital and facial complex, the solutions to which cross the spectrum of multiple specialties. The process of facial rehabilitation can be simplified by subdividing the face into functional units. These units consist of the brow complex, the periorbital complex, the midface complex, and the lower face/oral complex. Although all of these units are interrelated and influence each other, careful study of the deformity and symptoms of each unit yields a coherent approach and customized surgical plan. The following provides a complete evaluation method for the surgeon to review and customize an approach to the individual patient's needs and desires. Facial rehabilitation must be tailored to each individual, addressing both functional as well as aesthetic concerns for each facial unit.