Outbreak of Human Parainfluenza Virus Type 1 in a Kindergarten from China, 2018Funding The study was supported by China Mega-Project for Infectious Diseases Grant (2017ZX10103004), National Natural Science Foundation of China (81703274), and the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities (BMU20170607) and Peking University Medicine Seed Fund for Interdisciplinary Research (BMU2018MX009). The funders had no role in the design of the study and collection, analysis, and interpretation of data and in writing the manuscript.
17 March 2019
12 July 2019
03 September 2019 (eFirst)
Introduction We reported an outbreak of human parainfluenza virus type 1 (HPIV1) in a kindergarten and explored the genetic characteristics of HPIV1 hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) and fusion (F) genes to provide more evidence about HPIV1 outbreaks.
Methods Suspected cases were the children with an influenza-like illness during June 20 to 26, 2018. Nasopharyngeal swabs were collected and screened to determine the presence of respiratory pathogens by real-time fluorescent quantitative polymerase chain reaction. The HN and F gene sequences of HPIV-positive samples were further amplified and sequenced to confirm the HPIV genotype and identify genetic characteristics. A phylogenetic tree, based on the HN and F genes, was reconstructed by maximum likelihood method.
Results Fourteen children in the outbreak were diagnosed as upper respiratory tract infection. The most common symptom was cough (10/14), followed by rhinorrhea (5/14), sore throat (4/14), headache (1/14), and abdominal pain (1/14). Eight patients were positive for HPIV1 and negative for other pathogens. Phylogenetic tree demonstrated that the eight strains from the year 2018 in our study located in the clade 2.3. Two specific substitutions (N333S and I509M) in the amino acids of the F protein and two substitutions (V19A and L436I) in the HN protein were different from other strains in the clade 2.
Conclusion HPIV1 was attributed to the outbreak, which may be related to the genetic variations of HPIV1.
* These authors contributed equally to this work.
This study was performed with the approval of the Ethical Committees of Peking University Institutional Review Board. The methods were performed according to approved guidelines.
Availability of Data and Materials
The dataset used and analyzed during this study are available from the corresponding author on reasonable request.
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