J Pediatr Infect Dis
DOI: 10.1055/s-0039-1695039
Original Article
Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York

Outbreak of Human Parainfluenza Virus Type 1 in a Kindergarten from China, 2018

Hong-Jun Li*
1  Institute for Infectious Diseases and Endemic Diseases Prevention and Control, Beijing Tongzhou Center for Diseases Prevention and Control, Beijing, People's Republic of China
,
Juan Du*
2  Department of Laboratorial Science and Technology, School of Public Health, Peking University, Beijing, People's Republic of China
,
Yan-Na Yang*
1  Institute for Infectious Diseases and Endemic Diseases Prevention and Control, Beijing Tongzhou Center for Diseases Prevention and Control, Beijing, People's Republic of China
,
Yan Cui
1  Institute for Infectious Diseases and Endemic Diseases Prevention and Control, Beijing Tongzhou Center for Diseases Prevention and Control, Beijing, People's Republic of China
,
Lu Xi
1  Institute for Infectious Diseases and Endemic Diseases Prevention and Control, Beijing Tongzhou Center for Diseases Prevention and Control, Beijing, People's Republic of China
,
Shuai Wang
2  Department of Laboratorial Science and Technology, School of Public Health, Peking University, Beijing, People's Republic of China
,
Ya-Qiong Liu
2  Department of Laboratorial Science and Technology, School of Public Health, Peking University, Beijing, People's Republic of China
,
Guo-Feng Zhang
1  Institute for Infectious Diseases and Endemic Diseases Prevention and Control, Beijing Tongzhou Center for Diseases Prevention and Control, Beijing, People's Republic of China
,
Fuqiang Cui
2  Department of Laboratorial Science and Technology, School of Public Health, Peking University, Beijing, People's Republic of China
,
2  Department of Laboratorial Science and Technology, School of Public Health, Peking University, Beijing, People's Republic of China
› Author Affiliations
Funding The study was supported by China Mega-Project for Infectious Diseases Grant (2017ZX10103004), National Natural Science Foundation of China (81703274), and the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities (BMU20170607) and Peking University Medicine Seed Fund for Interdisciplinary Research (BMU2018MX009). The funders had no role in the design of the study and collection, analysis, and interpretation of data and in writing the manuscript.
Further Information

Publication History

17 March 2019

12 July 2019

Publication Date:
03 September 2019 (eFirst)

Abstract

Introduction We reported an outbreak of human parainfluenza virus type 1 (HPIV1) in a kindergarten and explored the genetic characteristics of HPIV1 hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) and fusion (F) genes to provide more evidence about HPIV1 outbreaks.

Methods Suspected cases were the children with an influenza-like illness during June 20 to 26, 2018. Nasopharyngeal swabs were collected and screened to determine the presence of respiratory pathogens by real-time fluorescent quantitative polymerase chain reaction. The HN and F gene sequences of HPIV-positive samples were further amplified and sequenced to confirm the HPIV genotype and identify genetic characteristics. A phylogenetic tree, based on the HN and F genes, was reconstructed by maximum likelihood method.

Results Fourteen children in the outbreak were diagnosed as upper respiratory tract infection. The most common symptom was cough (10/14), followed by rhinorrhea (5/14), sore throat (4/14), headache (1/14), and abdominal pain (1/14). Eight patients were positive for HPIV1 and negative for other pathogens. Phylogenetic tree demonstrated that the eight strains from the year 2018 in our study located in the clade 2.3. Two specific substitutions (N333S and I509M) in the amino acids of the F protein and two substitutions (V19A and L436I) in the HN protein were different from other strains in the clade 2.

Conclusion HPIV1 was attributed to the outbreak, which may be related to the genetic variations of HPIV1.

* These authors contributed equally to this work.


Ethics Approval

This study was performed with the approval of the Ethical Committees of Peking University Institutional Review Board. The methods were performed according to approved guidelines.


Availability of Data and Materials

The dataset used and analyzed during this study are available from the corresponding author on reasonable request.


Supplementary Material