J Pediatr Infect Dis
DOI: 10.1055/s-0039-1692972
Original Article
Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York

Viral Surveillance of Children with Acute Respiratory Infection in Two Main Hospitals in Northern Jordan, Irbid, during Winter of 2016

Samah Awad
1  Department of Pediatrics and Neonatology, Faculty of Medicine, King Abdullah University Hospital, Jordan University of Science and Technology, Irbid, Jordan
,
Yousef Khader
2  Department of Public Health and Community Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Jordan University of Science and Technology, Irbid, Jordan
,
Moa'th Mansi
1  Department of Pediatrics and Neonatology, Faculty of Medicine, King Abdullah University Hospital, Jordan University of Science and Technology, Irbid, Jordan
,
Dawood Yusef
1  Department of Pediatrics and Neonatology, Faculty of Medicine, King Abdullah University Hospital, Jordan University of Science and Technology, Irbid, Jordan
,
Salah Alawadin
1  Department of Pediatrics and Neonatology, Faculty of Medicine, King Abdullah University Hospital, Jordan University of Science and Technology, Irbid, Jordan
,
Walaa Qudah
1  Department of Pediatrics and Neonatology, Faculty of Medicine, King Abdullah University Hospital, Jordan University of Science and Technology, Irbid, Jordan
,
Ruba Khasawneh
3  Department of Diagnostic Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, King Abdullah University Hospital, Jordan University of Science and Technology, Irbid, Jordan
› Author Affiliations
Funding This work was supported by the Deanship of Research at Jordan University of Science and Technology under grant number: 20150367.
Further Information

Publication History

09 December 2018

20 May 2019

Publication Date:
04 July 2019 (eFirst)

Abstract

Acute lower respiratory infection (ALRI) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Data regarding the etiology of acute respiratory infection (ARI) is scarce in developing countries. The aim of this study was to identify the viral etiology of ARI/ALRI in hospitalized children and factors associated with increased length of stay (LoS) and severe disease presentation in Northern Jordan. This was a prospective viral surveillance study using real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction in children younger than 5 years admitted with ARI to two main hospitals in Northern Jordan during the winter of 2016. Nasopharyngeal swabs were obtained and tested for respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and other viruses. Demographic and clinical characteristics of RSV-positive patients were compared with those of RSV-negative patients. There were 479 patients hospitalized with ARI. Their mean age (standard deviation) was 10.4 (11.6) months. 53.9% tested positive for at least one virus, with RSV being the most commonly detected virus (34%). Compared with RSV-negative patients, RSV-positive patients were younger, more likely to have chronic lung disease, and more likely to present with cough, rhinorrhea, difficulty in breathing, retraction, flaring, grunting, wheezing, and a higher respiratory rate. Prematurity, presence of a chronic illness, oxygen saturation < 90%, and atelectasis and consolidation on chest X-rays were significantly associated with an increased mean LoS. Patients with a history of prematurity had higher risk of severe disease (odds ratio = 2.6; 95% confidence interval: 1.5, 4.7; p = 0.001). Compared with patients 6 months old and younger, patients aged 6.1 to 12 months were less likely to have severe disease. Human metapneumovirus (HMPV)-positive ALRI was associated with increased odds of severe disease. Viruses are recognized as etiological agent of ARI/ALRI-associated morbidity in developing countries that need more attention and implementation of targeted strategies for prevention and detection. HMPV can be a cause of severe ALRI.

Ethical Approval

This study was approved by the Institutional Review Board of Jordan University of Science and Technology, reference number: 28/91/2015.