CC BY-NC-ND 4.0 · J Reconstr Microsurg Open 2019; 04(01): e1-e8
DOI: 10.1055/s-0039-1678702
Original Article
Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

Soft Tissue Augmentation Using Free Tissue Transfer for Artificial Bone Infection or Skull Bone Sequestration after Neurosurgery

Masayuki Okochi
1  Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Teikyo University, Itabashi-Ku, Tokyo, Japan
Hiromi Okochi
2  Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Yamanashi University, Chuo, Yamanashi, Japan
Takao Sakaba
3  Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Fuskushima Medical University, Fukushima, Japan
Kazuki Ueda
4  Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Jusendo General Hospital, Koriyama, Fukushima, Japan
› Author Affiliations
Further Information

Publication History

24 September 2018

27 November 2018

Publication Date:
21 February 2019 (online)



Background We performed soft tissue augmentation using free flap and secondary cranioplasty combined with soft tissue augmentation for cases with artificial or autologous skull exposure after neurosurgery. We evaluated operative result and the relationship between the cause of infection and the infected site.

Methods Twenty-four patients were included. Data included age, sex, indications for neurosurgery, causes of infection, infection sites, medical comorbidities, time between last neurosurgery and reconstruction, types of reconstruction, and types of secondary cranioplasty.

Results The causes of neurosurgery were subarachnoid hemorrhage (n = 9), trauma (n = 5), brain tumor (n = 5), brain hemorrhage (n = 3), and meningioma (n = 3). The mean size of infected bone was 67.3 cm2. The mean duration between last neurosurgery and reconstruction was 5.2 years. Types of infected bone were artificial bone (n = 19) and autologous skull (n = 6). The soft tissue augmentation was performed using latissimus dorsi myocutaneous flap (n = 14) and anterolateral thigh flap (n = 10). The infection sites were the frontal (n = 13), temporal (n = 4), parietal (n = 4), and occipital regions (n = 4). Bone defects included the frontal sinus in all patients who had infections in the frontal region. The patients who had infections in non-frontal region received multiple surgeries (n = 7). Nine patients received secondary cranioplasty using custom-made hydroxyapatite block.

Conclusion To achieve good results during soft tissue augmentation, the cause of infection should be eliminated.